Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was used for many years to treat various malignant and non-malignant hematologic conditions and in the treatment of various solid tumors. Since the 1970s, steady progress has been made and HSCT is now regarded as a routine, rather than an experimental, approach in the treatment of a number of conditions, which would have proven fatal earlier on.Objective: Our study aimed to determine the most important preconditioning prognostic factors affecting the overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and relapse rate (RR) of adult Egyptians with hematological neoplasms who are treated with HSCT, whether autologous or allogeneic, and in turn minimizing the morbidity and mortality of those patients and improving their quality of life. Patients and methods: The study evaluated 98 adult patients with different hematological malignancies who underwent HSCT (whether autologous or allogeneic) at Stem Cell Transplantation Unit of Ain-Shams University from January 2014 to December 2018.Results: In our study, in the group of allogenic transplantation, There was a statistically significance at overall survival with number of chemotherapy cycles with P =0.028. Regarding post HSCT relapse and post HSCT mortality 11 patients (37.9%) died in the group that received ≤4 cycles of chemotherapy and 16 patients (55.2%) died in the group that received > 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Five-year overall and progression-free survival rose for allogeneic and autologous HSCT after the decade of their introduction.
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